How-To Upsert Into Key-Value Map

Overview

This how-to provides instructions to upsert into Key-Value Map (kv map). Upsert means insert when the item doesn't already exist, and update the item if it already exists in the map.

Before you begin

Make sure you have the following prerequisites in place:

  • An EOSIO development environment, for details consult the Get Started Guide
  • A smart contract named smrtcontract
  • A user defined type named person, which defines the data stored in the map
  • A kv map object, name my_map, which stores objects of type person, with unique keys of type int

Refer to the following reference implementation for your starting point:

smartcontract.hpp file

struct person {
  eosio::name account_name;
  std::string first_name;
  std::string last_name;
};

class [[eosio::contract]] smartcontract : public eosio::contract {

   using my_map_t = eosio::kv::map<"kvmap"_n, int, person>;

   public:
      using contract::contract;
      smartcontract(eosio::name receiver, eosio::name code, eosio::datastream<const char*> ds)
         : contract(receiver, code, ds) {}

   private:
      my_map_t my_map{};
};

Procedure

Complete the following steps to insert a new person object with a given ID, if it doesn't exist already, or update it in the kv map if the person with the given ID already exists:

  1. Create a new action in your contract, named upsert, which takes as input parameters the person id, an account_name, a first_name and a last_name.
  2. Create an instance of the person class, named person_upsert, based on the input parameters: account_name, first_name and last_name.
  3. Use the [] operator defined for the kv::map type, and set the newly created person_upsert object as the value for the id key.

Refer to the following reference implementation to insert a new person object, and then update it, in the kv map:

smartcontract.hpp file

struct person {
  eosio::name account_name;
  std::string first_name;
  std::string last_name;
};

class [[eosio::contract]] smartcontract : public eosio::contract {

   using my_map_t = eosio::kv::map<"kvmap"_n, int, person>;

   public:
      using contract::contract;
      smartcontract(eosio::name receiver, eosio::name code, eosio::datastream<const char*> ds)
         : contract(receiver, code, ds) {}

      // inserts a person if not exists, or updates it if already exists.
      // the payer for the resources consumed is the account that created the kv::map
      // object in the first place, the account that owns this smart contract.
      [[eosio::action]]
      void upsert(int id,
         eosio::name account_name,
         std::string first_name,
         std::string last_name);

   private:
      my_map_t my_map{};
};

smartcontract.cpp file

// inserts if not exists, or updates if already exists, a person
[[eosio::action]]
void smartcontract::upsert(
      int id,
      eosio::name account_name,
      std::string first_name,
      std::string last_name) {

   // create the person object which will be stored in kv::map
   const person& person_upsert = person{
      account_name = account_name,
      first_name = first_name,
      last_name = last_name};

   // upsert into kv::map
   my_map[id] = person_upsert;
}

Summary

In conclusion, the above instructions show how to upsert into Key-Value Map (kv map).

Next Steps

The following options are available when you complete the procedure:

  • Verify if the newly inserted person actually exists in the map. To accomplish this task use the find() function of the kv_map.
  • Delete the newly created or updated person from the map. To accomplish this task, use the erase() function of the kv map.