How To Submit A Transaction

To submit a transaction, call transact on the api object, passing in two parameters.

The first parameter specifies the actions in the transaction, and their corresponding authorizations, as well as any data necessary for the action to execute. An example for the buyrambytes action is shown below.

{ 
   actions: [{
     account: 'eosio',
     name: 'buyrambytes',
     authorization: [{
       actor: 'useraaaaaaaa',
       permission: 'active',
     }],
     data: {
       payer: 'useraaaaaaaa',
       receiver: 'useraaaaaaaa',
       bytes: 8192,
     },
   }]
}

The second parameter is an optional configuration object parameter. This optional parameter can override the default values of broadcast: true and sign: true, and can be used to fill TAPOS fields with the specified expireSeconds and either blocksBehind or useLastIrreversible if necessary. A combination of these fields are required if the first parameter specified above does not itself contain the TAPOS fields expiration, ref_block_num, and ref_block_prefix. In this case it does not, so the fields are necessary.

{
  blocksBehind: 3,
  expireSeconds: 30,
}

Below is a complete example transaction to call the buyrambytes action with useraaaaaaaa's active permission, useraaaaaaaa is also both the payer and receiver of 8192 bytes of RAM.
The transaction will reference the block 3 blocks behind the head block, and will automatically expire the transaction 30 seconds after the time present in this referenced block.

(async () => {
  const transaction = await api.transact({
   actions: [{
     account: 'eosio',
     name: 'buyrambytes',
     authorization: [{
       actor: 'useraaaaaaaa',
       permission: 'active',
     }],
     data: {
       payer: 'useraaaaaaaa',
       receiver: 'useraaaaaaaa',
       bytes: 8192,
     },
   }]
  }, {
   blocksBehind: 3,
   expireSeconds: 30,
  });
})();

Alternatively, the transaction could be submitted without the optional configuration object by specifying the TAPOS fields expiration, ref_block_num, and ref_block_prefix explicity in the action.

(async () => {
  const transaction = await api.transact({
   expiration: '2019-09-19T16:39:15',
   ref_block_num: '50477227',
   ref_block_prefix: '1022379673',
   actions: [{
     account: 'eosio',
     name: 'buyrambytes',
     authorization: [{
       actor: 'useraaaaaaaa',
       permission: 'active',
     }],
     data: {
       payer: 'useraaaaaaaa',
       receiver: 'useraaaaaaaa',
       bytes: 8192,
     },
   }]
  });
})();

Concise Actions

To construct transactions and actions in a more concise way, you can also utilize this format instead:

(async () => {
  await api.transact({ 
   actions: [
     api.with('eosio').as('useraaaaaaaa').buyrambytes('useraaaaaaaa', 'useraaaaaaaa', 8192)
   ]
  }, {
    blocksBehind: 3,
    expireSeconds: 30,
  });
})();

With this concise format of an action, the with() function has the account, as() contains the actor, and the name of the action is the third function. The arguments within the action function are listed in the same order as the arguments from the smart contract. You can also send a longer authentication within the as() function, such as [{ actor: ‘useraaaaaaaa’, permission: ‘active’}].

Before using this structure, you need to cache the JSON Abi:

(async () => {
  await api.getAbi('eosio');
  ...
})();

Additionally, utilizing this structure, a stateful transaction object can be created and passed through your application before sending when ready. The transaction object can also be created as a callback method.

(async () => {
  const tx = api.buildTransaction();
  tx.with('eosio').as('useraaaaaaaa').buyrambytes('useraaaaaaaa', 'useraaaaaaaa', 8192)
  await tx.send({ blocksBehind: 3, expireSeconds: 30 });

  // ...or...

  api.buildTransaction(async (tx) => {
    tx.with('eosio').as('useraaaaaaaa').buyrambytes('useraaaaaaaa', 'useraaaaaaaa', 8192)
    await tx.send({ blocksBehind: 3, expireSeconds: 30 });
  });
})();

By using this object and passing it around your application, it might be more difficult for your application to keep the correct references and indexes for context free actions. The transaction object has a function for mapping actions, context free actions, and context free data together.

(async () => {
  const tx = api.buildTransaction();
  tx.associateContextFree((index) => ({
    contextFreeData: cfdata,
    contextFreeAction: tx.with('account').as().cfaName(index.cfd, 'context free example'),
    action: tx.with('account').as('actor').actionName('example', index.cfa)
  }));
  await tx.send({ blocksBehind: 3, expireSeconds: 30 });
})();

By providing that function inside tx.associateContextFree(), the transaction object will provide the correct indexes for the context free action and context free data. You can input the index.cfa or index.cfd arguments where your smart contract requires that index in the list of arguments. Additionally, all three object keys are not necessary in the function, in case for example, the action is not necessary for your context free action.

Return Values

From nodeos version 2.1, the ability to receive return values from smart contracts to eosjs has been introduced. In the above examples, the transaction object will include the values transaction_id and the processed object. If your smart contract returns values, you will be able to find the values within the transaction.processed.action_traces array. The order of the action_traces array matches the order of actions in your transaction and within those action_trace objects, you can find your deserialized return value for your action in the return_value field.

Read-Only Transactions

From nodeos version 2.2, read-only queries have been introduced to eosjs. Adding readOnlyTrx to the transact config will send the transaction through the push_ro_transaction endpoint in the chain_api. The push_ro_transaction endpoint does not allow the transaction to make any data changes despite the actions in the transaction. The push_ro_transaction endpoint may also be used to call normal actions, but any data changes that action will make will be rolled back.

Adding returnFailureTraces to the transact config enables the return of a trace message if your transaction fails. At this time, this is only available for the push_ro_transaction endpoint.